Improving substation maintenance best practices for greater success. A caveat to this weighty goal is to accomplish more with less with a reduced workforce and under tight budgets. Field workers face this reality daily. Therefore, to overcome such challenges, maintenance crews have to be properly equipped and trained for these everyday demanding tasks.
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Substation Maintenance Best Practices
Zachary H Draper and Dr. James J Dukarm. Dissolved gas analysis DGA in transformers is a very successful periodic screening method to identify transformers that may be having problems. It is a About Us Advertise Contact Us. All Rights Reserved.To browse Academia. Skip to main content.
Log In Sign Up. Ravalika Vadduri. Substations are integral part of a power system and form important part of transmission and distribution network of electrical power system.
Their main functions are to receive energy transmitted at high voltage from the generating stations, reduce the voltage to a value appropriate for local distribution and provide facilities for switching some sub-station are simply switching stations different connections between various transmission lines are made, others are converting sub-stations which either convert AC into DC or vice-versa or convert frequency from higher to lower or vice-versa.
The various circuits are joined together through these components to a bus-bar at substation. And also an attempt is made to cover the general maintenance of Substation and Checks the observations to be made by Shift Engineer. Title Page No 4. The electric power is produced at the power stations which are located at favourable places, generally quite away from the consumers. It is delivered to the consumers through a large network of transmission and distribution. At many places in the line of the power system, it may be desirable and necessary to change some characteristic e.
This is accomplished by suitable apparatus called sub-station. For example, generation voltage 11KV or 6. The assembly of apparatus e. This is because water is required for various construction activities; Especially civil works,earthing and for drinking purposes etc.
However, the two most important ways of classifying them are according to 1 service requirement and 2 constructional features. According to the service requirement, sub-stations may be classified into: i Transformer sub-stations: Those sub-stations which change the voltage level of electric supply are called transformer sub-stations.
These sub-stations receive power at some voltage and deliver it at some other voltage. Obviously, transformer will be the main component in such sub-stations. Most of the sub-stations in the power system are of this type.
However, they simply perform the switching operations of power lines. Such sub-stations are generally located at the receiving end of transmission lines.
Substation Maintenance PowerPoint PPT Presentations
These sub-stations generally use synchronous condensers as the power factor improvement equipment. Such a frequency change may be required for industrial utilization.
These sub-stations receive A. However, when the atmosphere is contaminated with impurities, these sub-stations can be erected for voltages up to 66 KV. It is because for such voltages, the clearances between conductors and the space required for switches, circuit breakers and other equipment becomes so great that it is not economical to install the equipment indoor.
Under such situations, the sub-station is created underground. It is the cheapest form of sub- station for voltages not exceeding 11KV or 33 KV in some cases. Electric power is almost distributed in localities through such sub-station. Fig: 2. And the symbols are shown below. There are several feeders enter into the substation and carrying out the power.
As these feeders enter the station they are to pass through various instruments. Lightening arrestors; 2. CVT; 3.Here's a comprehensive reference on how to operate and maintain all the essential components of substations: power transformers, circuit breakers, capacitors, reactors, regulators, protective relays, control systems, and batteries.
Contents include a tour of a substation yard; safety in substations; how to receive, inspect, test, and maintain power transformers; what's inside a circuit breaker and how to maintain it; SF6 properties and safe handling; substation capacitor and reactor functions and tests; voltage regulator inspections and tests; protective relay types and how they function; how to test, recharge, and replace substation batteries.
More than color photos and diagrams and cut-away views make it easy to see and understand the many details of substation equipment. For each of the 28 chapters, there's a video that tracks the presentation of that chapter. Hotwire For Instructors. Substation Operation and Maintentance Here's a comprehensive reference on how to operate and maintain all the essential components of substations: power transformers, circuit breakers, capacitors, reactors, regulators, protective relays, control systems, and batteries.
Instant Video.Copy embed code:. Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed. WordPress Embed Customize Embed.220kV / 66 kV Electrical Substation All Explained - Live Tour 🔴
URL: Copy. Presentation Description No description available. By: gopinathchaudhar 80 month s ago. By: psaikrishna 92 month s ago. By: ursravindran month s ago. Hi Mr. Pl send me this ppt to ursravindran rediffmail. Thanks n Regards — Ravindran. By: month s ago. Its principle of operation is same as that of power or current transformer. In this transformer the number of turns in secondary winding is less than primary winding.
Isolators are manually as well as automatically operated. These are fitted on both sides of transformer, circuit breaker or any equipment. Many relays use an electromagnetism for switching mechanism. Other types of relays are —solid state relay, microprocessor based relay and Buchholz relay. It is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit.
Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then has to be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset either manually or automatically to resume normal operation. The battery charging equipments comprises of a float charger and a boost charger. The battery can be boost charging after a prolonged mains failure by the boost charger. It is basically an inductor of rating in millihenry. They are usually connected between phase and ground. Surge arrestor discharges current impulse surge to earth and dissipates energy in the form of heat.
Follow us on:.After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. Get the plugin now. Toggle navigation. Help Preferences Sign up Log in. To view this presentation, you'll need to allow Flash. Click to allow Flash After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. View by Category Toggle navigation. Products Sold on our sister site CrystalGraphics. Description: An electrical substation takes electricity from a very high Substations blight our neighborhood with ugliness.
Provided by: westsideco. Tags: substation ugliness. Latest Highest Rated. These are excellent questions! Lets deal with them one at a time. An electrical substation takes electricity from a very high voltage and lowers it to the voltage we use in our homes businesses 3 4 What is a substation?
Solutions for Electrical Substation Maintenance
Think of it like a connector for different sized water pipes. The electrical substation in the block of Allen Street is similar to this one. Electricity is made at a very high, powerful voltage.
A substation safely changes the electricity from very high voltage to lower voltage we can use. Transformers step down the electricity from the high voltage needed to economically transmit the electricity. There are also complex circuit breakers, switches, relays, and capacitors. Substations have HUGE power poles to bring in the high voltage electricity.
These would be more than feet tall on the WestSide The electrical substation in the block of Allen Street is similar to this one. These are the power lines on Troost. Substations operate without any workers on-site.
Substations are monitored by remote control. Because these are very dangerous activities and no workers are present, they have automated emergency gear. There are detectors for fire and line breaks. There is automatic fire suppression. KCPL workers will come occasionally to do maintenance work on the substation. The short answer is YES!Copy embed code:. Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed. WordPress Embed Customize Embed.
URL: Copy. We are headquartered in Vadodara GujaratIndia, but our exposure is not limited to National Industries. Slide1: Maintenance of Substation Equipment Slide2: Introduction The switchgear and protective relaying system should be always alert to operate against an unexpectedly fault.
Switchgear which was in quiescent state has to operate immediately. For such an operation, regular and detailed maintenance is necessary. The lack of maintenance may result in failure in operation. The maintenance requirements of static equipment's like transformers, capacitors etc.
Slide3: Breakdown Maintenance Versus Preventive Maintenance A performance record of each critical component is maintained and basic decisions on the service life of the component and the total service it has put in. Repairs or replacements are made to ensure that no breakdown occurs at any time during the service. Preventive maintenance is carried out in planned manner. Breakdown maintenance is carried out as and when necessary. For switchgear and protective equipment, preventive maintenance is recommended because failure of a switchgear cannot be permitted.
It usually includes visual and operational checks. Servicing: This refers to cleaning, adjustment, lubrication and other maintenance functions without dismantling the equipment.
The equipment, sub-assemblies are dismantled partly or completely. The condition of components is inspected. Dimensions of worn-out components are measured. The components worn-out beyond acceptable limit are replaced. The assembly is followed by functional checks and measurements to ensure satisfactory operation. Operating duty; frequency of operation, rated current. Switching duty severity, e. Follow us on:.
Go to Application.A well planned electrical substation maintenance assures reliable supply and reduction in failures. Many failures can be detected during the electrical substation maintenance routines, reducing the risk of significant plant downtime, and preventing future problems. The risk of a catastrophic failure can cost large time and money.
The electrical substation maintenance involves periodic planned inspections, checking, testing and troubleshooting, to ensure the correct operation of all components and their interaction during the plant lifecycle. Typical inspection and diagnosis processes of the electrical substation maintenance includes, among others, transformers, breakers, protection relays, wiring and switchgear in general.
Each device requires different strategies. Implementing the right action at the right time will define different electrical substation maintenance procedures, whether time based, condition or reliability based. All of them must be supported by suitable testing tools. Thinking in cost and failure effect, the most critical pieces are power transformers and circuit breakers; many old transformers and breakers are in use with many aging problems that requires periodic maintenance.
One of the best practices in electrical substation maintenance is the circuit breaker testing. Periodically analyzing their physical and electrical parameters helps to predict an abnormal operation before it happens. The small and friendly SMC PMETR includes all mentioned functions that can be required in the electrical substation maintenance plans, and reduces the testing time to evaluate the condition of the breaker.
Measuring breakers contact resistance and other interconnections integrity is common practice in the electrical substation maintenance routines. Our new PRIME micro-ohmmeter results best-suited for this application, performing both static and dynamic resistance measurements, as it is essential for assessing the actual condition of the contacts in inaccessible SF or vacuum chambers. Powers transformers are also critical during the electrical substation maintenance.
In fact, its failing can produce large economic losses.
They are exposed to several electrical and thermal stresses during its lifetime, and therefore many routine tests can be included in the electrical substation maintenance. Turn ratio and winding resistance measurement, recovery voltage, polarization index, short-circuit impedance, along with diagnostics and trending software, are part of the ETP System, a predictive maintenance system for power transformers. Apart from testing each device separately, it is essential to test the entire protection circuit on a periodic basis — or after any system modification —to ensure integrity of the total circuit.
The protection system can be tested as a whole by injecting primary test currents. The combination of mobility, digital regulation and versatility makes the RAPTOR the ideal system for all primary injection testing required in the electrical substation maintenance routines.
Current transformer testing is also an important part of electrical substation maintenance. Protective relays can only operate adequately if they receive the correct secondary current from the CTs. Periodic testing is necessary to ensure that a protection scheme provides satisfactory performance for many years after being installed, and secondary injection tests may be carried out at suitable intervals to check relays, protection panel, wiring and all secondary equipment performance, during the electrical substation maintenance planning, or after any modification.
The type of testing required and frequency will depend on the type and technology of protection installed. Secondary injection may involve testing of overcurrent, distance, differential, voltage and frequency protections, reclose schemes, IEC compliance, etc, apart from the checking of all secondary control and protection circuits, wiring, polarity, burden, etc.
As usual with SMC test equipment, simplicity and ease-of-use are common to all secondary testing solutions for electrical substation maintenance. For additional Information about electrical substation maintenance, see the following contents. SMC — Electrical Calculator. Solutions for Electrical Substation Maintenance.
Description Related Products Additional Information about electrical substation maintenance. Primary testing in the electrical substation maintenance Thinking in cost and failure effect, the most critical pieces are power transformers and circuit breakers; many old transformers and breakers are in use with many aging problems that requires periodic maintenance. For more information, please check the related SMC products. Mentor universal relay testing system.
Raptor primary test system. PTEC secondary injection test set.