Textile Course. Online textile learning platform. Determination of Yarn Tensile Strength. It is a parameter of vital importance regarding the fabrication of yarn because it directly influences the strength of the developed fabrics. Two different approaches are used to measure yarn strength.
In the first approach a single yarn strength is determined.
Normally Newton N and cN units are used. The amount of force required by an object having mass of one kilogram to accelerate it to one meter per second square is called as one Newton force. A single yarn strength provides information about the warping machine and loom efficiency.
In order to calculate the combined strength effect of the yarn, the count lea strength product CLSP of the yarn is calculated. The lea strength is determined by using a lea strength machine that has two jaws, one fixed and the other attached to the load. Using the constant rate of loading principle, the tensile strength of the lea can be determined.
Types of Tensile Strength Testing Machines: On the basis of the working principle, tensile strength testing machines can be categorized into three major categories. Fig: Yarn tensile strength testing machines Constant Rate of Extension CRE : The machines have a constant rate of elongation of the specimen; as the load increases there is negligible movement of the measuring mechanism.
The working principle of the Tensorapid-4, which is used to evaluate the tensile strength of a single yarn, is a constant rate of elongation. Constant Rate of Loading CRL : The machines apply the load on the test sample, which is increased constantly with time.
The specimen is free to elongate and its extension depends on its properties for any applied load. The working principle of the lea strength machine is of this category. Constant Rate of Traverse CRT : In this type of machine two pulling clamps are used to evaluate the tensile strength of the sample.
One clamp moves with constant speed and application of the load is done by the second clamp, which is responsible for the activation of a load measuring mechanism. Normally old machines use this mechanism, such as the old fabric tensile strength testing machine. Determination of Tensile Strength of Yarn: Tensile strength of yarn by skein method : This method involves the reeling of the yarn onto a skein more commonly known as a lea through a wrapping reel, which is used for measuring linear density, the two loose ends being tied together.
This lea is mounted on two jaws of a tensile strength tester. After that the lea is subjected to increasing extension and the force applied is recorded. As one portion of the lea is broken from a point in the weakest region, the maximum force applied is noted in kilograms or pounds.
The strength of at least 10 leas of the same count is measured by using the above method from which the mean is calculated. The British Standard determines a hank or lea of wraps of 1 m distance across. On the off chance that the yarn is spun on the cotton, worsted frameworks of 10 skeins ought to be tested with 20 leas for woolens.If we can't tunnel through the Earth, how do we know what's at its center?
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Unanswered Questions. Crocheting and Knitting. How the yarn RKM valaue relates to yarn strength? Wiki User RKM is the short expression for "Reisskilometer" - "Breaking-kilometer", which is an unit out of date. This can be expressed by the "breaking force of yarn per kilometers" at which yarn will break of its own weight". Mehedi Hasan RKm to Csp why use River mile is the mile distance along a river. Similarly the rkm is the kilometer distance along a river. Hence rkm is river kilometer. It is mainly used for referencing locations and measuring streams and rivers in USA.
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Asked in Microsoft PowerPoint How do you exclude a slide from a presentation? Bring the ppt to slide sorter view. A small icon will appear below these slides. While showing the ppt in slide show view, this slide will not appear.
Hope that helps RKM. Asked in Computer Hardware, Laptops Why are tackpads used on laptops? Write a program in C using command line arguments to display a welcome message.Our FREE email update is sent to you once every two weeks, bringing you crochet information, patterns, ideas, tips and the latest news. Click for more information and to discover our other exciting email updates. Already a print or digital subscriber?
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This matching blanket and toy set would make the perfect baby shower gift! Customize the Crochet a blanket and owl friend for your child! What child wouldn't love to snuggle down This cabled messenger bag is the perfect summer companion.
Stow your latest crochet This pretty star design is worked in an interlocking pattern over a background of summery Two alternating motifs worked in dreamy colors inspired by a favorite spot at the lake Your new go-to top! A pretty lacy yoke of crossed stitches adds the perfect touch to this Disclaimer: Remember this is a weight conversion calculator, not a substitution calculation. Sock, sport, worsted-weight, etc all should be converted to the same type yarn before making any calculations.
All rights reserved. Close X. Full Subscription Details. Weight Conversion oz to grams and vice versa - look at the label on your skein for information.
Do I have enough yarn Conversion from Skein what's in your stash to Weight called for in the pattern.If we can't tunnel through the Earth, how do we know what's at its center? All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Hottest Questions. Previously Viewed. Unanswered Questions. Crocheting and Knitting. We need you to answer this question! If you know the answer to this question, please register to join our limited beta program and start the conversation right now!
RKM is the short expression for "Reisskilometer" - "Breaking-kilometer", which is an unit out of date. This can be expressed by the "breaking force of yarn per kilometers" at which yarn will break of its own weight".
The symbol for CSP Inc. CSP Inc. Asked in Electrical Engineering What are the protections of power transformer? A coventional transformerprotection is in the external wiring dun by lineman, grounds,arresters. City suprintendent of police. Mainly photovoltaic and CSP.
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Trending Questions.The most obvious way to measure the number of twists per unit length of yarn is simply to untwist a known length of the yarn and check visually to see whether the twist has been completely removed. General specification required for twist measurement.yarn count
Twist testing methods depends on the specification, accuracy, demanded, from of the sample etc. In general the following points may be followed for getting reliable result. They are. Usually twist is not distributed uniformly along a yarn. Speaking technically, the amount of twist in a materials is inversely proportional to its thickness. And for to avoiding having bias in twist measurement, twist should be determined at fixed intervals along the yarn that is 1 yard of distance which is suitable.
Withdrawal of yarn over the end of the package adds twist to a yarn, whereas withdrawal from the side of the package does not. The yarn should be withdrawn from the package in the manner in which it would be normally used in the next stage of processing.
The package should be mounted vertically on a peg and free to rotate about the peg as the yarn is withdrawn gently from it. The actual test specimen should be handled manually such that the fingers do not touch the length over which the twist is actually measured.
In the case of plied and cabled spun yarn and continuous filament yarn, at least 20 specimens are to be tested if the length is mm according to BIS British Standards Institution. In the case of single spun yarn, BSI recommends 50 specimens of 25 mm each. The tension is the test specimen must be constant.
For example: A 40s Ne c count i. Techniques of twist Measurements. The most common techniques that have been used for measuring yam twist are listed below. A Straightened twist tester. Used only for testing single spun yarns, this technique involves the untwisting of the test specimen until all of the twist is removed. The number of turns required for the untwisting is counted and the number is divided by the length of the test specimen to arrive at the twist of the test yarn turns per unit length.
The instrument consists of two pillars, A and B, mounted on a rigid base C. Pillar B carries a jaw I that can be rotated manually either way by means of handle K and the number of revolutions is recorded in the revolution counter J.
A length of 25 mm or one inchthe test length normally used, separates the faces of the jaws D and I. A test specimen L can be seen mounted between the two Jaws. Next clamp the test yam in the rotatable jaw.Please fill in your details to download the Table of Contents of this report for free. We also do customization of these reports so you can write to us at mi fibre2fashion.
By: D. Introduction The process of twisting is an indispensable means of improving certain yarn properties and satisfying textile requirements that cannot be fulfilled by the single yarns. The method of twisting two or more single yarns is called doubling or folding or ply twisting.
Such yarns are designated as doubled yarn, folded yarn or plied yarn and the machines intended for the purpose are called doublers, ply-twisters or two-for-one TFO twisters. Traditionally, ring doublers were used for ply twisting spun yarns and uptwisters were used for twisting filament yarns.
Now-a-days, TFO twisters are gaining world-wide acceptance in both spun yarn and filament yarn sectors mainly because of their inherent advantages like 1 production of long length of knot free yarns which facilitates better performance in the subsequent processes and 2 higher productivity.
Presently, over 4 lakh TFO twisting positions are working in India. However, not much information about the working performance of TFO twisters particularly with regard to production parameters, process sequence, yarn quality, etc. This paper deals with count-wise production particulars like spindle speed, tpi and production per spindle.
Some other important operational parameters like improvement in yarn quality, type of spindle drive, delivery package weight and feed package weight ratio, doubled yarn twist and single yarn twist ratio, etc. Profile of the participant mills Table 1 gives the profile of the mills which have participated in the study. It is significant that a large number of up-country mills has participated in the study. In the case of indigenous machines, the spindles per twister range between and ; more popular size being spindles.
Of the total counts manufactured, slightly over one-half are cotton yarns while polyester blended yarns account for about one-fourth. Number of plies ranges from 2 to 6 in cotton counts. However, for special applications, there are yarns with twist on twist, with the folding twist in the same direction as the spinning twist, say 'Z' on 'Z'.
In this study, except 3 cases, all the folded yarns produced are with 'S' on 'Z' twist direction. Indigenous manufacturers largely use 4 spindle tape drive system while almost the entire imported machines are with tangential belt drive system.
For this purpose, yarns require a protection pot around the package. Closer the internal diameter of the protection pot to outside diameter of the feed package, the space utilisation percentage for the particular type of machine is higher. Analysis of the data regarding the protection pot diameter shows that pot sizes used by the mills range from mm to mm. Process sequence Process sequence followed by the mills in TFO twisting depends largely on the twisted yarn quality requirement of the customers.
The mills participated in the study follow as many as 8 different sequences of preparatory and post TFO processes in the case of ring yarns and 2 different processes for OE yarns Table 2. Of the 8 process sequences for ring yarns, 2 processes, viz A and B are followed by nearly three-fourths of the mills.
Since TFO twisted yarns are generally produced as premium yarns for manufacturing high value fabrics, these mills A and B processes use automatic cone winders to clear the defects in ring yarns electronically and join the broken ends by splicing. Another one-fifth of the mills use conventional cone winders to clear the defects in ring yarns. Further analysis reveals that one-tenth of the mills follow more than one process sequence.
The twist balance can be achieved by the selection of proper ply twist to contract the single twist and it should be effective over a wide range of humidities and types of processing. The almost unity ratio used in polyester viscose blended yarns, ie single twist and ply twist are equal, leads to high strength.
This is because a fibre arrangement that is nearly parallel to the yarn axis makes maximum use of the inherent fibre strength.
Delivery package weight and feed package weight ratio Feed package weight An ideal feed package for TFO twister is parallel wound cylindrical package called cheese.Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion.
He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.
Name of the Experiment: Determination of cotton yarn strength and C. Fig: Lea strength tester. Again, english count is the no. A lea strength tester measures the strength of one lea yarn.
One lea means yards. Strength is a measure of the steady force necessary to break a material and is measured in pound. Assuming the specimen to be extensible and an absence of any dynamic effects, we get from the figure:.
Yarn length. Yarn strength. P of the given sample. Avg C.
Basic formulas used in Spinning process
C alculation:. P is P less than are bad or weak, between are average and greater than are strong. This is proved that there are many variations in this range but our supplied yarn has good strength. So finally we can say that these yarns have good strength fibres. But it may be vary because our testing atmosphere is not standard. You may also like: Determination of Yarn Tensile Strength.
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For details: Submit Article. Editor-in-Chief: Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. Previous Newer Post. Next Older Post. Figure: The pendulum lever principle. Yarn length yds. Yarn strength lbs. Sample Wt gms. Yarn Count Ne.